Linux碎碎念

当然同意只会用ls, cd便可。

作为业务爱好, 平常看看Linux打发时间, 发现喧嚣热闹, 鸟哥鸟叔, 老男孩小鲜肉;
既然是打发时间嘛, 必然没有硬性指标, 不成想时间打发了倒是真的, 而且还打发了不少, 爱好却无从谈起; 回头一看, 如沙滩上建空中楼阁.

Linux的十万点击博文往往如此,

  1. ls落伍了, 高效(or 搞笑)的exa来了
  2. 你还在用cd吗? 高手都在用facd
  3. grep? OMG, 你是原始人吗? rg走起

如此这般, 林林总总, 不一而足.

稳扎稳打, 步步为营, 层层构建的方案是现成的. (避嫌, 贴lpic的维基百科链接

闲话少叙,上图lpic-1提炼的十大知识体系.

2 个赞

仁兄你真的是论坛最喜欢发帖子的人了,哈哈哈

嘻嘻嘻…

1.1.Home目录 :

安装Ubuntu后, Home文件夹下主要有四个文档:

  1. Documents
  2. Pictures
  3. Music(注意是不可数名词)
  4. Videos

人类的信息交换, 传播与存储, 只有这四个方面:

  1. Text(文本)
  2. Image(图像)
  3. Audio(声音)
  4. Video(动态)

看一眼, 由静态入动态, 由文字到造型八大艺术:

番外, video这个单词, 我总typo成vedio, 后来读"凯撒"的维基百科,
那句著名的: "我来, 我见, 我征服"的拉丁语"Veni(Venue), Vidi(Video), Vici(victory), 再也没有拼错过.

facd又是什么高雅工具?难道是搜索都搜不到的神器?

1 个赞

火眼金睛啊, 拼错了 fasd(fast-cd)

1 个赞

根目录

Filesystem Hierarchy Standard( FHS) v3.0的root下的17个文件夹

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesystem_Hierarchy_Standard

|--------------+---------------------------+----|
| Root         |                           |    |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|
| 1.Run        | boot,run,proc, *sys       |  4 |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|
| 2.Environent | etc, var                  |  2 |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|
| 3.Dynamic    | /user/(sbin,bin,lib), opt |  5 |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|
| 4.Static     | home, tmp, *srv           |  3 |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|
| 5.Devices    | dev, media, mnt           |  3 |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|
|              |                           | 17 |
|--------------+---------------------------+----|

分类仅为记忆便利, 非FHS标准.

1 个赞

exa 不错啊,可以不看git ignore,还能看git状态。我把我的ls的快捷键换到exa了

/run /media /mnt 这三者有什么不同,经常分不清

/run不必说了,跟后面非同一类。

mnt, 自己mount的话到这个目录 media留给系统自动mount用,
就是惯例, 没有区别。

101: System Architecture*

101.1 Determine and configure hardware settings

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to determine and configure fundamental system hardware Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Enable and disable integrated peripherals.
  • Differentiate between the various types of mass storage devices.
  • Determine hardware resources for devices.
  • Tools and utilities to list various hardware information (e.g. lsusb, lspci, etc.).
  • Tools and utilities to manipulate USB devices.
  • Conceptual understanding of sysfs, udev and dbus.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • sys
  • proc
  • dev
  • modprobe
  • lsmod
  • lspci
  • lsusb

101.2 Boot the system

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to guide the system through the booting process. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Provide common commands to the boot loader and options to the kernel at boot time.
  • Demonstrate knowledge of the boot sequence from BIOS/UEFI to boot completion.
  • Understanding of SysVinit and systemd.
  • Awareness of Upstart.
  • Check boot events in the log files.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • dmesg
  • journalctl
  • BIOS
  • UEFI
  • bootloader
  • kernel
  • initramfs
  • init
  • SysVinit
  • systemd

101.3 Change runlevels / boot targets and shutdown or reboot system

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to manage the SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target of the system. This objective includes changing to single user mode, shutdown or rebooting the system. Candidates should be able to alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets and properly terminate processes. This objective also includes setting the default SysVinit runlevel or systemd boot target. It also includes awareness of Upstart as an alternative to SysVinit or systemd. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set the default runlevel or boot target.
  • Change between runlevels / boot targets including single user mode.
  • Shutdown and reboot from the command line.
  • Alert users before switching runlevels / boot targets or other major system events.
  • Properly terminate processes.
  • Awareness of acpid.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/inittab
  • shutdown
  • init
  • etc/init.d
  • telinit
  • systemd
  • systemctl
  • etc/systemd
  • usr/lib/systemd
  • wall

102: Linux Installation and Package Mana*

102.1 Design hard disk layout

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to design a disk partitioning scheme for a Linux system. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Allocate filesystems and swap space to separate partitions or disks.
  • Tailor the design to the intended use of the system.
  • Ensure the /boot partition conforms to the hardware architecture requirements for booting.
  • Knowledge of basic features of LVM.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • / (root) filesystem
  • /var filesystem
  • /home filesystem
  • /boot filesystem
  • EFI System Partition (ESP)
  • swap space
  • mount points
  • partitions

*

102.2 Install a boot manager

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to select, install and configure a boot manager. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Providing alternative boot locations and backup boot options.
  • Install and configure a boot loader such as GRUB Legacy.
  • Perform basic configuration changes for GRUB 2.
  • Interact with the boot loader.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • menu.lst, grub.cfg and grub.conf
  • grub-install
  • grub-mkconfig
  • MBR

102.3 Manage shared libraries

Weight: 1 Description: Candidates should be able to determine the shared libraries that executable programs depend on and install them when necessary. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Identify shared libraries.
  • Identify the typical locations of system libraries.
  • Load shared libraries.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ldd
  • ldconfig
  • /etc/ld.so.conf
  • LD\~LIBRARY~\~PATH~

102.4 Use Debian package management

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using the Debian package tools. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, upgrade and uninstall Debian binary packages.
  • Find packages containing specific files or libraries which may or may not be installed.
  • Obtain package information like version, content, dependencies, package integrity and installation status (whether or not the package is installed).
  • Awareness of apt.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/apt/sources.list
  • dpkg
  • dpkg-reconfigure
  • apt-get
  • apt-cache

102.5 Use RPM and YUM package management

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to perform package management using RPM, YUM and Zypper. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Install, re-install, upgrade and remove packages using RPM, YUM and Zypper.
  • Obtain information on RPM packages such as version, status, dependencies, integrity and signatures.
  • Determine what files a package provides, as well as find which package a specific file comes from.
  • Awareness of dnf.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • rpm
  • rpm2cpio
  • /etc/yum.conf
  • etc/yum.repos.d
  • yum
  • zypper

*

102.6 Linux as a virtualization guest

Weight: 1 Description: Candidates should understand the implications of virtualization and cloud computing on a Linux guest system. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the general concept of virtual machines and containers.
  • Understand common elements virtual machines in an IaaS cloud, such as computing instances, block storage and networking.
  • Understand unique properties of a Linux system which have to changed when a system is cloned or used as a template.
  • Understand how system images are used to deploy virtual machines, cloud instances and containers.
  • Understand Linux extensions which integrate Linux with a virtualization product.
  • Awareness of cloud-init.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • Virtual machine
  • Linux container
  • Application container
  • Guest drivers
  • SSH host keys
  • D-Bus machine id

103: GNU and Unix Commands*

103.1 Work on the command line

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to interact with shells and commands using the command line. The objective assumes the Bash shell. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use single shell commands and one line command sequences to perform basic tasks on the command line.
  • Use and modify the shell environment including defining, referencing and exporting environment variables.
  • Use and edit command history.
  • Invoke commands inside and outside the defined path.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • bash
  • echo
  • env
  • export
  • pwd
  • set
  • unset
  • type
  • which
  • man
  • uname
  • history
  • .bash\~history~
  • Quoting

103.2 Process text streams using filters

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to apply filters to text streams. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Send text files and output streams through text utility filters to modify the output using standard UNIX commands found in the GNU textutils package.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • bzcat
  • cat
  • cut
  • head
  • less
  • md5sum
  • nl
  • od
  • paste
  • sed
  • sha256sum
  • sha512sum
  • sort
  • split
  • tail
  • tr
  • uniq
  • wc
  • xzcat
  • zcat

103.3 Perform basic file management

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to use the basic Linux commands to manage files and directories. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Copy, move and remove files and directories individually.
  • Copy multiple files and directories recursively.
  • Remove files and directories recursively.
  • Use simple and advanced wildcard specifications in commands.
  • Using find to locate and act on files based on type, size, or time.
  • Usage of tar, cpio and dd.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • cp
  • find
  • mkdir
  • mv
  • ls
  • rm
  • rmdir
  • touch
  • tar
  • cpio
  • dd
  • file
  • gzip
  • gunzip
  • bzip2
  • bunzip2
  • xz
  • unxz
  • file globbing

103.4 Use streams, pipes and redirects

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to redirect streams and connect them in order to efficiently process textual data. Tasks include redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error, piping the output of one command to the input of another command, using the output of one command as arguments to another command and sending output to both stdout and a file. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Redirecting standard input, standard output and standard error.
  • Pipe the output of one command to the input of another command.
  • Use the output of one command as arguments to another command.
  • Send output to both stdout and a file.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • tee
  • xargs

103.5 Create, monitor and kill processes

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to perform basic process management. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Run jobs in the foreground and background.
  • Signal a program to continue running after logout.
  • Monitor active processes.
  • Select and sort processes for display.
  • Send signals to processes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • &
  • bg
  • fg
  • jobs
  • kill
  • nohup
  • ps
  • top
  • free
  • uptime
  • pgrep
  • pkill
  • killall
  • watch
  • screen
  • tmux

103.6 Modify process execution priorities

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should should be able to manage process execution priorities. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Know the default priority of a job that is created.
  • Run a program with higher or lower priority than the default.
  • Change the priority of a running process.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • nice
  • ps
  • renice
  • top

103.7 Search text files using regular expressions

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to manipulate files and text data using regular expressions. This objective includes creating simple regular expressions containing several notational elements as well as understanding the differences between basic and extended regular expressions. It also includes using regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create simple regular expressions containing several notational elements.
  • Understand the differences between basic and extended regular expressions.
  • Understand the concepts of special characters, character classes, quantifiers and anchors.
  • Use regular expression tools to perform searches through a filesystem or file content.
  • Use regular expressions to delete, change and substitute text.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • grep
  • egrep
  • fgrep
  • sed
  • regex(7)

103.8 Basic file editing

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to edit text files using vi. This objective includes vi navigation, vi modes, inserting, editing, deleting, copying and finding text. It also includes awareness of other common editors and setting the default editor. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Navigate a document using vi.
  • Understand and use vi modes.
  • Insert, edit, delete, copy and find text in vi.
  • Awareness of Emacs, nano and vim.
  • Configure the standard editor.

Terms and Utilities:

  • vi
  • /, ?
  • h,j,k,l
  • i, o, a
  • d, p, y, dd, yy
  • ZZ, :w!, :q!
  • EDITOR

*

104: Devices, Linux Filesystems, Filesystem Hierarchy Standard*

104.1 Create partitions and filesystems

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to configure disk partitions and then create filesystems on media such as hard disks. This includes the handling of swap partitions. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage MBR and GPT partition tables

  • Use various mkfs commands to create various filesystems such as:

    • ext2/ext3/ext4
    • XFS
    • VFAT
    • exFAT

  • Basic feature knowledge of Btrfs, including multi-device filesystems, compression and subvolumes.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • fdisk
  • gdisk
  • parted
  • mkfs
  • mkswap

104.2 Maintain the integrity of filesystems

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to maintain a standard filesystem, as well as the extra data associated with a journaling filesystem. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Verify the integrity of filesystems.
  • Monitor free space and inodes.
  • Repair simple filesystem problems.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • du
  • df
  • fsck
  • e2fsck
  • mke2fs
  • tune2fs
  • xfs\~repair~
  • xfs\~fsr~
  • xfs\~db~

104.3 Control mounting and unmounting of filesystems

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to configure the mounting of a filesystem. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manually mount and unmount filesystems.
  • Configure filesystem mounting on bootup.
  • Configure user mountable removable filesystems.
  • Use of labels and UUIDs for identifying and mounting file systems.
  • Awareness of systemd mount units.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/fstab
  • media
  • mount
  • umount
  • blkid
  • lsblk

104.4 Removed

104.5 Manage file permissions and ownership

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to control file access through the proper use of permissions and ownerships. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage access permissions on regular and special files as well as directories.
  • Use access modes such as suid, sgid and the sticky bit to maintain security.
  • Know how to change the file creation mask.
  • Use the group field to grant file access to group members.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • chmod
  • umask
  • chown
  • chgrp

104.6 Create and change hard and symbolic links

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to create and manage hard and symbolic links to a file. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create links.
  • Identify hard and/or soft links.
  • Copying versus linking files.
  • Use links to support system administration tasks.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ln
  • ls

104.7 Find system files and place files in the correct location

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be thoroughly familiar with the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), including typical file locations and directory classifications. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand the correct locations of files under the FHS.
  • Find files and commands on a Linux system.
  • Know the location and purpose of important file and directories as defined in the FHS.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • find
  • locate
  • updatedb
  • whereis
  • which
  • type
  • /etc/updatedb.conf

105: Shells and Shell Scripting*

105.1 Customize and use the shell environment

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to customize shell environments to meet users’ needs. Candidates should be able to modify global and user profiles. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set environment variables (e.g. PATH) at login or when spawning a new shell.
  • Write Bash functions for frequently used sequences of commands.
  • Maintain skeleton directories for new user accounts.
  • Set command search path with the proper directory.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • .
  • source
  • /etc/bash.bashrc
  • /etc/profile
  • env
  • export
  • set
  • unset
  • ~/.bash\~profile~
  • ~/.bash\~login~
  • ~/.profile
  • ~/.bashrc
  • ~/.bash\~logout~
  • function
  • alias

105.2 Customize or write simple scripts

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to customize existing scripts, or write simple new Bash scripts. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Use standard sh syntax (loops, tests).
  • Use command substitution.
  • Test return values for success or failure or other information provided by a command.
  • Execute chained commands.
  • Perform conditional mailing to the superuser.
  • Correctly select the script interpreter through the shebang (#!) line.
  • Manage the location, ownership, execution and suid-rights of scripts.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • for
  • while
  • test
  • if
  • read
  • seq
  • exec
  • ||
  • &&

106: User Interfaces and Desktops*

106.1 Install and configure X11

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to install and configure X11. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understanding of the X11 architecture.
  • Basic understanding and knowledge of the X Window configuration file.
  • Overwrite specific aspects of Xorg configuration, such as keyboard layout.
  • Understand the components of desktop environments, such as display managers and window managers.
  • Manage access to the X server and display applications on remote X servers.
  • Awareness of Wayland.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/X11/xorg.conf
  • etc/X11/xorg.conf.d
  • ~/.xsession-errors
  • xhost
  • xauth
  • DISPLAY
  • X

106.2 Graphical Desktops

Weight: 1 Description: Candidates should be aware of major Linux desktops. Furthermore, candidates should be aware of protocols used to access remote desktop sessions. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Awareness of major desktop environments
  • Awareness of protocols to access remote desktop sessions

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • KDE
  • Gnome
  • Xfce
  • X11
  • XDMCP
  • VNC
  • Spice
  • RDP

106.3 Accessibility

Weight: 1 Description: Demonstrate knowledge and awareness of accessibility technologies. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic knowledge of visual settings and themes.
  • Basic knowledge of assistive technology.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • High Contrast/Large Print Desktop Themes.
  • Screen Reader.
  • Braille Display.
  • Screen Magnifier.
  • On-Screen Keyboard.
  • Sticky/Repeat keys.
  • Slow/Bounce/Toggle keys.
  • Mouse keys.
  • Gestures.
  • Voice recognition.

107: Administrative Tasks*

7与8合并成一个.

107.1 Manage user and group accounts and related system files

Weight: 5 Description: Candidates should be able to add, remove, suspend and change user accounts. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Add, modify and remove users and groups.
  • Manage user/group info in password/group databases.
  • Create and manage special purpose and limited accounts.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • /etc/group
  • etc/skel
  • chage
  • getent
  • groupadd
  • groupdel
  • groupmod
  • passwd
  • useradd
  • userdel
  • usermod

107.2 Automate system administration tasks by scheduling jobs

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to use cron and systemd timers to run jobs at regular intervals and to use at to run jobs at a specific time. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manage cron and at jobs.
  • Configure user access to cron and at services.
  • Understand systemd timer units.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • etc/cron.{d,daily,hourly,monthly,weekly}
  • /etc/at.deny
  • /etc/at.allow
  • /etc/crontab
  • /etc/cron.allow
  • /etc/cron.deny
  • var/spool/cron
  • crontab
  • at
  • atq
  • atrm
  • systemctl
  • systemd-run

107.3 Localisation and internationalisation

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to localize a system in a different language than English. As well, an understanding of why LANG=C is useful when scripting. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Configure locale settings and environment variables.
  • Configure timezone settings and environment variables.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • usr/share/zoneinfo
  • LC\~*~
  • LC\~ALL~
  • LANG
  • TZ
  • /usr/bin/locale
  • tzselect
  • timedatectl
  • date
  • iconv
  • UTF-8
  • ISO-8859
  • ASCII
  • Unicode

108: Essential System Services*

108.1 Maintain system time

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be able to properly maintain the system time and synchronize the clock via NTP. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Set the system date and time.
  • Set the hardware clock to the correct time in UTC.
  • Configure the correct timezone.
  • Basic NTP configuration using ntpd and chrony.
  • Knowledge of using the pool.ntp.org service.
  • Awareness of the ntpq command.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • usr/share/zoneinfo
  • /etc/timezone
  • /etc/localtime
  • /etc/ntp.conf
  • /etc/chrony.conf
  • date
  • hwclock
  • timedatectl
  • ntpd
  • ntpdate
  • chronyc
  • pool.ntp.org

108.2 System logging

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to configure rsyslog. This objective also includes configuring the logging daemon to send log output to a central log server or accept log output as a central log server. Use of the systemd journal subsystem is covered. Also, awareness of syslog and syslog-ng as alternative logging systems is included. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic configuration of rsyslog.
  • Understanding of standard facilities, priorities and actions.
  • Query the systemd journal.
  • Filter systemd journal data by criteria such as date, service or priority.
  • Configure persistent systemd journal storage and journal size.
  • Delete old systemd journal data.
  • Retrieve systemd journal data from a rescue system or file system copy.
  • Understand interaction of rsyslog with systemd-journald.
  • Configuration of logrotate.
  • Awareness of syslog and syslog-ng.

Terms and Utilities:

  • /etc/rsyslog.conf
  • var/log
  • logger
  • logrotate
  • /etc/logrotate.conf
  • etc/logrotate.d
  • journalctl
  • systemd-cat
  • /etc/systemd/journald.conf
  • var/log/journal

108.3 Mail Transfer Agent (MTA) basics

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should be aware of the commonly available MTA programs and be able to perform basic forward and alias configuration on a client host. Other configuration files are not covered. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Create e-mail aliases. Configure e-mail forwarding. Knowledge of commonly available MTA programs (postfix, sendmail, exim) (no configuration).

Terms and Utilities:

  • ~/.forward
  • sendmail emulation layer commands
  • newaliases
  • mail
  • mailq
  • postfix
  • sendmail
  • exim

108.4 Manage printers and printing

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to manage print queues and user print jobs using CUPS and the LPD compatibility interface. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Basic CUPS configuration (for local and remote printers).
  • Manage user print queues.
  • Troubleshoot general printing problems.
  • Add and remove jobs from configured printer queues.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • CUPS configuration files, tools and utilities
  • etc/cups
  • lpd legacy interface (lpr, lprm, lpq)

109: Networking Fundamentals*

109.1 Fundamentals of internet protocols

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should demonstrate a proper understanding of TCP/IP network fundamentals. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Demonstrate an understanding of network masks and CIDR notation.
  • Knowledge of the differences between private and public “dotted quad” IP addresses.
  • Knowledge about common TCP and UDP ports and services (20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 53, 80, 110, 123, 139, 143, 161, 162, 389, 443, 465, 514, 636, 993, 995).
  • Knowledge about the differences and major features of UDP, TCP and ICMP.
  • Knowledge of the major differences between IPv4 and IPv6.
  • Knowledge of the basic features of IPv6.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/services
  • IPv4, IPv6
  • Subnetting
  • TCP, UDP, ICMP

109.2 Persistent network configuration

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to manage the persistent network configuration of a Linux host. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Understand basic TCP/IP host configuration.
  • Configure ethernet and wi-fi network using NetworkManager.
  • Awareness of systemd-networkd.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/hostname
  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • nmcli
  • hostnamectl
  • ifup
  • ifdown

109.3 Basic network troubleshooting

Weight: 4 Description: Candidates should be able to troubleshoot networking issues on client hosts. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Manually configure network interfaces, including viewing and changing the configuration of network interfaces using iproute2.
  • Manually configure routing, including viewing and changing routing tables and setting the default route using iproute2.
  • Debug problems associated with the network configuration.
  • Awareness of legacy net-tools commands.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ip
  • hostname
  • ss
  • ping
  • ping6
  • traceroute
  • traceroute6
  • tracepath
  • tracepath6
  • netcat
  • ifconfig
  • netstat
  • route

109.4 Configure client side DNS

Weight: 2 Description: Candidates should be able to configure DNS on a client host. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Query remote DNS servers.
  • Configure local name resolution and use remote DNS servers.
  • Modify the order in which name resolution is done.
  • Debug errors related to name resolution.
  • Awareness of systemd-resolved.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/hosts
  • /etc/resolv.conf
  • /etc/nsswitch.conf
  • host
  • dig
  • getent

110: Security*

110.1 Perform security administration tasks

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should know how to review system configuration to ensure host security in accordance with local security policies. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Audit a system to find files with the suid/sgid bit set.
  • Set or change user passwords and password aging information.
  • Being able to use nmap and netstat to discover open ports on a system.
  • Set up limits on user logins, processes and memory usage.
  • Determine which users have logged in to the system or are currently logged in.
  • Basic sudo configuration and usage.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • find
  • passwd
  • fuser
  • lsof
  • nmap
  • chage
  • netstat
  • sudo
  • /etc/sudoers
  • su
  • usermod
  • ulimit
  • who, w, last

110.2 Setup host security

Weight: 3 Description: Candidates should know how to set up a basic level of host security. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Awareness of shadow passwords and how they work.
  • Turn off network services not in use.
  • Understand the role of TCP wrappers.

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • /etc/nologin
  • /etc/passwd
  • /etc/shadow
  • etc/xinetd.d
  • /etc/xinetd.conf
  • systemd.socket
  • /etc/inittab
  • etc/init.d
  • /etc/hosts.allow
  • /etc/hosts.deny

110.3 Securing data with encryption

Weight: 4 Description: The candidate should be able to use public key techniques to secure data and communication. Key Knowledge Areas:

  • Perform basic OpenSSH 2 client configuration and usage.
  • Understand the role of OpenSSH 2 server host keys.
  • Perform basic GnuPG configuration, usage and revocation.
  • Use GPG to encrypt, decrypt, sign and verify files.
  • Understand SSH port tunnels (including X11 tunnels).

The following is a partial list of the used files, terms and utilities:

  • ssh
  • ssh-keygen
  • ssh-agent
  • ssh-add
  • ~/.ssh/id\~rsa~ and id\~rsa~.pub
  • ~/.ssh/id\~dsa~ and id\~dsa~.pub
  • ~/.ssh/id\~ecdsa~ and id\~ecdsa~.pub
  • ~/.ssh/id\~ed25519~ and id\~ed25519~.pub
  • /etc/ssh/ssh\~host~\~rsa~\~key~ and ssh\~host~\~rsa~\~key~.pub
  • /etc/ssh/ssh\~host~\~dsa~\~key~ and ssh\~host~\~dsa~\~key~.pub
  • /etc/ssh/ssh\~host~\~ecdsa~\~key~ and ssh\~host~\~ecdsa~\~key~.pub
  • /etc/ssh/ssh\~host~\~ed25519~\~key~ and ssh\~host~\~ed25519~\~key~.pub
  • ~/.ssh/authorized\~keys~
  • ssh\~known~\~hosts~
  • gpg
  • gpg-agent
  • ~.gnupg

Future Change Considerations

Future changes to the objective will/may include:

  • Remove ifup/ifdown and legacy net-tools command
  • Remove TCP wrappers
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